1699 The Society for the Propagation for Christian Knowledge was founded by Reverend Thomas Bray.
Iberville began construction of Fort Maurepas at the site of Old Biloxi, now Ocean Springs, Mississippi. Old Biloxi was the capital of Louisiana until 1702 and again from 1719­20.
May 23, John Bartram was born in Darby, Pennsylvania.
1700 December 28, John Lawson began his travels through North and South Carolina
1702 March 8, Queen Anne, second oldest child of James II, ascended the throne of England upon the death of William III.
October 1, South Carolina governor James Moore led an expedition of Indians and Carolinians against the Spanish missions in Florida. The invasion ended the Spanish mission system in Georgia. The invaders burned Saint Augustine but failed to subdue Castillo de San Marcos.
1702­13 Queen Anne's War, also known as the War of Spanish Succession, was the second of the Anglo-French conflicts known as the French and Indian Wars in North America.
1704 South Carolina destroyed most of the missions remaining outside the vicinity of Saint Augustine.
1705 The Navigation Laws were expanded to include molasses, rice, naval stores, and marine timber; requiring these products to be exported only to England.
1706 January 17, Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston.
1707 The Act of Union combined the legislative governments of England and Scotland. The union was thereafter known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
1711 Bienville built Fort Saint-Louis de la Louisiane twelve miles north of present-day Mobile.
September 11, the Tuscarora War began in North Carolina and John Lawson was one of the first casualties.
1712 May 9, North and South Carolina were each given their own governor.
1713 March 23, the Tuscarora War ended and the Tuscaroras fled north to join the Iroquois League.
1714 Tea was introduced to the American colonies.
George I became King of England upon the death of Queen Anne.
1715 King Louis XIV died and Louis XV ascended the throne of France.
The Jacobite Rebellion began in Scotland in an attempt to restore the exiled James Francis Edward Stuart to the throne. James was to be King James VII of Scotland and James III of England.
April 14, The Yamassee War began at Poctaligo in South Carolina.
1716 Combined South Carolina and Cherokee forces defeated the Yamassees at Pocotaligo, South Carolina.
1717 George Frederick Händel composed Water Music for King George I.
1717­18 The first wave of Ulster Scots emigrated from Ireland to the American colonies, numbering over 5,000 in the first year alone.
1718 Daniel Defoe wrote Robinson Crusoe.
San Antonio was settled in an attempt to check French influence on the Gulf Coast.
New Orleans was surveyed.
1719 The present-day town of Biloxi was founded.
1720 The Declaratory Act gave British Parliament power over Ireland.
The French Treasury was bankrupted by the Mississippi Bubble and collapse of stock values in the Company of the Indies.
1721 The first Germans settled in Louisiana north of New Orleans.
1722­25 Mark Catesby made botanical and biological explorations of South Carolina.
1722 May 23, Mark Catesby arrived in Charleston.
New Orleans became the capital of Louisiana.
1723 The FIrst Dunkard Baptist Church was organized in Germantown, Pennsylvania.
John Bartram married Mary Maris.
1725 Roger Moore and Goose Creek families settled the lower Cape Fear River.
1725­29 Crop failures, excessive rents, and trade restraints forced the emigration of tens of thousands of Ulster Scots to the American colonies. The majority settled in Pennsylvania.
1726 Brunswick, North Carolina, was founded.
1727 George I died and George II became King of England.
Sir Isaac Newton died.
Mary Maris died.
1728 John Bartram purchased the property that became the Bartram Garden.
1729 Jonathan Swift published A Modest Proposal.
Mark Catesby began work on the The Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands
The Carolina Proprietors sold their patent to the Crown and North and South Carolina were separated.
October 10, John Bartram and Ann Mendenhall were married.
1729 The Natchez War erupted in Louisiana.
Georgetown, South Carolina, was surveyed.
1730 A quarter of the Cherokee population died of small pox. Nancy Ward was born.
1732 Benjamin Franklin began publishing Poor Richard's Almanac.
1732 Purrysburg, South Carolina, was settled by French and Swiss Protestants.
1733 February 12, James Edward Oglethorpe settled Savannah.
John Bartram began corresponding with Peter Collinson.
1734 The Great Awakening began in England. Jonathan Edwards preached in Northampton, emphasizing man's sinful nature and the torments of eternal damnation.
1735 William Hogarth published his collection of prints titled "A Rake's Progress."
Augustus Gootlieb Spangenberg established near Savannah the FIrst Moravian community in America. They moved to Pennsylvania in 1741.
1736 February 5, John Wesley arrived in Savannah as spiritual leader of Georgia and missionary to the Creeks but returned to England within the year.
Spring, John Bartram began his travels in search of plants and seeds. His first excursion outside the environs of Philadelphia was to Cedar Swamp in New Jersey.
Fall, John Bartram traveled toward the headwaters of the Schuylkill River in the Pennsylvania mountains.
1737 Fall, John Bartram traveled throughout the eastern shore of Maryland and Virginia.
1738 May, John Bartram discovered American ginseng on the Susquehanna River.
September 25­October 26, John Bartram traveled to the western shore of Virginia, the Shenandoa Valley, and Blue Ridge Mountains.
1739 The Philadelphia Academy was founded by Benjamin Franklin and associates. It was the FIrst secular college in North America and was the FIrst to offer a liberal arts education. It became the University of Pennsylvania in 1779.
Oglethorpe established a presence on Amelia and Fort George islands in Florida and captured forts Picolata and Poppa on the Saint Johns River.
George WhiteFIeld became the spiritual leader of Georgia and brought the Great Awakening to the American Colonies.
The War of Jenkins' Ear began and then merged with the War of Austrian Succession in Europe, also known as King George's War. It involved a dispute over the Georgia-Florida boundary and economic rivalry between Spain and England.
April 20, William and Elizabeth Bartram were born at Kingsessing on the Shuylkill River, west of Philadelphia. His date of birth was recorded as "2 mo. 9" which has been thought to mean February 9. By the old Quaker calendar that date is actually April 9, which is April 20 by the modern calendar.
1740 Famine in northern Ireland caused the deaths of 400,000 people and initiated a third wave of emigration from Ulster that included a quarter of the population. Scotch-Irish settlers began þooding into the western part of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and North Carolina.
February 25, Wilmington was incorporated and became the port of entry for the lower part of North Carolina
1740 February, John Bartram began a correspondence with Mark Catesby.
May 10, Georgians and South Carolinians invaded Florida and besieged Saint Augustine but fail to take Castillo de San Marcos.
September, John Bartram explored north of Philadelphia, into the blue Mountains, and to the Delaware Water Gap.
1741 May 20­early summer, John Bartram traveled to the Catskill Mountains and Albany, New York.
July, John Bartram began a correspondence with Hans Sloane.
1742 George Frederick Handel wrote The Messiah.
July 7, Oglethorpe's Highland regiment defeated the Spanish army at Bloody Marsh on Saint Simons Island.
1743 Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram founded the American Philosophical Society.
1745 July 1, Charles Edward Stuart, the grandson of James II, landed in Scotland and began his attempt to regain the throne of Great Britain.
1746 April 16, Scottish supporters of Prince Charles Edward Stuart were defeated at the Battle of Culloden Moor.
1748 September 1, Brunswick, North Carolina, was attacked by the Spanish ship Fortuna.
1749 October 26, slavery was ofFIcially sanctioned in Georgia.
December 23, Mark Catesby died in London.
1750 Fall, John Bartram traveled to the Delaware Water Gap.
1751 The FIrst sugarcane was grown in Louisiana.
April 1, the Virginia House of Burgesses questioned the right of Parliament to interfere in colonial affairs.
1752 William Bartram entered the Philadelphia Academy.
September 2, the Gregorian calendar supplanted the Julian calender, the next day became September 14.
1753 September, John and William Bartram traveled to the Catskill Mountains.
1754 The French and Indian War began in North America. In Europe the conflict was known as the Seven Years War.
July 4, George Washington surrendered Fort Necessity to the French.
Late Summer, John and William Bartram traveled to the Catskill Mountains and met Dr. Alexander Garden at the home of Cadwallader Colden.
1755 Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language was published.
Benjamin Franklin offered to take William as a printer's apprentice, but John Bartram declined because he thought the trade was too often unproFItable. Dr. Alexander Garden offered to take William as a physician's apprentice, but John Bartram declined that offer also because he felt that William was interested only because of Garden's botanical knowledge.
William Bartram's drawings were sent to Peter Collinson and shown to his circle of friends.
Late Summer­Fall, John and William Bartram traveled to New York and Connecticut.
October 8, the Acadians were expelled from Canada and dispersed throughout the British colonies.
November 27, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres near Ninety Six, South Carolina, and began the FIrst Jewish settlement in America.
1756 May 17, Britain declared war on France and began the Seven Years War (1756-63). The conflict eventually involved most of the European powers.
William Bartram was apprenticed to merchant James Child.
1758 John Bartram was removed from membership of the Darby Meeting of Friends because he did not acknowledge the divinity of Jesus. He continued to attend meetings for the rest of his life.
1759 Voltaire wrote Candide.
The British Museum opened.
Late October, John Bartram and John Bartram, Jr., traveled to the Shenandoah Valley and the blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia.
1760­62 The Cherokee War
1760 March, John Bartram sailed to Charleston
April, Bartram sailed to the Wilmington and traveled to his Brother William's home. He returned home through Virginia.
August 7, Fort Loudon was captured by the Cherokees.
September 8, The French surrendered Montreal to the British and ended the French and Indian War.
October 25, George III ascended the throne of England upon the death of his grandfather, George II.
1761 Summer, William Bartram opened a mercantile business near his Uncle William's plantation on the Cape Fear River.
September, John Bartram traveled to Pittsburg.
December 2, the Royal Governors were instructed to obtain permission from Parliament before purchasing Indian lands or making grants on Indian lands.
1762 June, William Bartram returned to Philadelphia on business.
August, John Bartram, William and Moses Bartram traveled through Virginia Piedmont and into North Carolina. At Yadkin William and Moses traveled to Ashboro and John continued on into South Carolina Piedmont beyond Camden.
December 3, France ceded Louisiana and Isle de Orleans to Spain.
1763 February 10, the Treaty of Paris ofFIcially ended the Seven Years War (French & Indian War). England obtained possession of East & West Florida from Spain in exchange for Cuba.
April, John Wilkes was arrested for an article in the North Briton 45 that criticized the King and his hand-picked prime minister, the Earl of Bute. Wilkes became a cause célèbre, which lead to greater freedom of the press in England and the inclusion of that concept in the FIrst amendment to the United States Constitution.
October 8, the Royal Proclamation forbade whites taking up lands west of a line demarcating the boundary of Indian lands.
1765 March 22, the Stamp Act received royal approval.
April 9, John Bartram was appointed His Majesty's Botanist in North America.
May 24, the Quartering Act became law and required the American colonies to house and feed British soldiers.
July 7, John Bartram arrived in Charleston.
July 16, Bartram left Charleston and traveled to Ashboro.
August 6, John and William Bartram returned to Charleston.
August 29, the Bartrams left Charleston.
September 4, the Bartrams arrived in Savannah. They lodged with James Habersham and met with Governor Wright. They left Savannah the next day and traveled north along the Augusta Road. On the way they visited Silver Bluff and Shell Bluff. They explored the Savannah River with George Galphin.
September 12, the Bartrams arrived in Augusta. They left Augusta on the 18th.
September 24, the Bartrams dined with Governor James Wright.
September 25, the Bartrams visited Bethesda.
September 29, the Bartrams spent the evening at Beverly, James Habersham's country home.
September 30, the Bartrams began their trip to East Florida and crossed the Ogeechee River. They lodged near Riceboro.
October 1, they reached Fort Barrington where they discovered Franklinia, fevertree, and Ogeechee lime.
October 5, they left the altamaha River and traveled south on the Old Post Road, then known as the Savannah to Saint Augustine Road.
October 7, the Stamp Act Congress met in New York and issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances which claimed that the colonists were due the complete rights of English citizens. The Bartrams crossed the Satilla River.
October 11, the Bartrams arrived in Saint Augustine. They dined with Governor James Grant the next day. John contracted malaria.
November, the Stamp Act became effective law, colonial ports were closed because stamps were not available.
November 16, the Bartrams attended the Indian conference at Picolata.
December, the Sons of Liberty was organized in the colonies.
December 22, the Bartrams set out on their trip up the St. Johns River.
December 26, they visited Charlotia and Murphy Island.
December 31, they reached Spalding's Lower Store near Palatka.
1766 January 12, the Bartrams reached their farthest point near the headwaters of the St. Johns River near Titusville. They started back downriver the next day.
January 19, they arrived at Spalding's Upper Store.
January 23, the Bartrams explored around Silver Glen Springs.
January 24, William Bartram discovered Illicium floridanum, star anise.
Early February, the Bartrams explored the lower St. Johns River.
Mid-February, the Bartrams returned to Saint Augustine. William decided to reamin in Florida and become a planter. He took a land grant near Fort Picolata.
March 18, the Stamp Act was repealed. The Declatory Act was passed, which stated that Parliament and the King had the right to make laws for the American colonies.
March 22, John Bartram arrived in Charleston and spent several weeks preparing his specimens for shipping. With the advice of Henry Laurens John purchased slaves, supplies, and seeds to send to William.
April 22, John Bartram arrived home in Philadelphia.
July 6, William Bartram was visited by Henry Laurens. Laurens reported to John Bartram that William's prospect as a planter looked dim and advised that John encourage his son to abandon the scheme. Sometime in the late summer William sold out and went to work for William De Brahm surveying the land for the colony of New Smyrna. Sometime around December William was shipwrecked just off the New Smyrna Beach.
1767 June 29, the Townshend Revenue Acts were passed to raise taxes in the American colonies. The revenue was to pay for governors and judges, retire debts arising from the French and Indian War, and to pay for defense of the colonies. Colonists were required to pay duty on tea, glass, oil. lead, paper, and paint colors.
Dr. John Fothergill became acquainted with Wiliam Bartram's work and ordered drawings of shells and turtles.
Fall, William Bartram returned to Philadelphia. He worked as a laborer for awhile then returned to the mercantile business in Philadelphia.
1768 The Royal Academy was founded.
The first edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica was published.
Captain James Cook explored the Pacific Ocean.
April 11, Peter Collinson died.
February 11, the Massachusetts Lower House of Assembly wrote to the colonial legislatures requesting cooperation in seeking repeal of the Townshend Acts.
October 1, two regiments of British troops arrived in Boston to enforce the authority of Parliament.
1769 James Watt patented the steam engine.
April 26, John Bartram was elected to the Royal academy of Sciences of Stockholm.
1770 The College of Charleston was established, although classes did not commence until 1790.
The population of the British colonies in North America was 2,205,000.
Lord Frederick North became Prime Minister of England and began tightening control over the American colonies.
Richard Arkwright and associates built the FIrst water powered spinning mill in Derbyshire, England, which started the facotry system of manufacturing and fueled the industrail revolution in textile manufacutre.
March 5, citizens of Boston taunted British soldiers who fired upon the crowd, killing five and wounding many others. The incident became known as the Boston Massacre.
April l2, the Townshend Revenue Acts were repealed, except for the tax on tea.
September, William was threatened by a creditor. He abruptly left Philadelphia and turned up at his uncle's home in North Carolina.
October 24, William Bartram's beloved Uncle William died.
1771­75 Over 50,000 Presbyterians emigrated from Ulster to North America and settled primarily in North and South Carolina, where they formed a majority of the backcountry population and became ardent patriots.
1772 Denis Diderot completed his Encyclopedie, which was the geatest collection of knowledge of the day and a monument to the Enlightenment.
Summer, William proposed that Dr. Fothergill fund a trip to Florida. That fall Fothergill authorized Dr. Lionel Chalmers of Charleston to allow Bartram a stipend of £50 and additional payments for each drawing. In return William would ship seeds and plants to Fothergill.
1773 The Watauga Association was organized by John Sevier and James Robertson to govern the trans-Appalachian settlements in present day eastern Tennessee.
January 12, the Charleston Museum was founded.
March 20, William Bartram departed Philadelphia.
March 31, Bartram arrived in Charleston to begin his travels in the South.
April 11 or 12, William Bartram arrived in Savannah.
April 16, traveled to Midway, Sunbury, Darien, and Brunswick.
April 27, the Tea Act was passed in an effort to save the East India Company from bankruptcy. It enabled the company to undercut the prices of American tea merchants.
May 1, departed Darien with young John McIntosh as a traveling companion.
May 3, arrived in Savannah.
May 5, visited Ebenezer.
May 9, crossed Savannah River to Silver Bluff and visited with George Galphin.
May 14, reached Augusta.
May 16­19, visited Wrightsborough.
June 1, the Second Treaty of Augusta was concluded.
June 7, the Survey party departed Augusta.
June 21, the survey party departed Wrightsborough and traveled up the north side of Little River to the Great Buffalo Lick, Cherokee Corner, and to the Tugaloo River.
Mid-July, William Bartram returned to Savannah.
Mid July­March1774, made excursions around Savannah and the Georgia coast. He was ill for several weeks during the summer of 1773 and recuperated at the home of Lachlan McIntosh in Darien.
December 16, the Boston Tea Party destroyed £18,000 worth of tea. Parliament began enacting a series of laws intended to punish Boston and subdue the democratic element and thus began the series of events leading to war.
1774 January 14, Coweta Creeks attacked settlers at Sherrill's Fort west of Wrightsborough.
January 29, in a Privy Council hearing to remove Massachusetts governor Thomas Hutchinson, Benjamin Franklin was publicly reprimanded and humiliated. That day he turned away from reconciliation and stated to Alexander Wedderburn, "I will make your master a little king for this."
March 31, the Coercive Acts were passed by Parliament in an effort to exert control over the colonies. The port of Boston was closed and the Massachusetts legislature lost some of its authority.
March, traveled to Frederica, then by boat to Cumberland Island and Amelia Island. He purchased a boat near present-day Jacksonville.
Mid-April sailed up the St. Johns River, and arrived at Spalding's Lower Store near Palatka.
Late April, traveled to Alachua Savannah (Gainesville) and Cuscowilla (Micanopy).
May 10, Louis XVI became King of France.
May 20, Parliament passed the Massachusetts Act which forbade public meetings in Massachusetts unless authorized by the governor.
May 20, the Administration of Justice Act provided that all British ofFIcials accused of capital crimes must be transported to England for trial.
Mid-May through early June, traveled to Lake George, Spalding's Upper Store, his encounter with the menacing alligators, and visited Blue Springs
Mid-June­mid-July, returned to Alachua Savannah, traveled to the Suwanee River, and explored Manatee Springs.
July 6, the First Provincial Congress of South Carolina met in Charleston.
August 10, Georgia Whigs met at Tondee's Tavern and drew up resolutions condemning British occupation of Boston and demanding equal rights as British citizens.
August 25, the first North Carolina Provincial Congress was convened at New Bern.
August­September, made an excursion up the St. John's River.
September 5, the First Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia.
September 17, the Suffolk Resolves of Massachusetts organized opposition to the Intolerable Acts.
November, Bartram departed East Florida.
November 10, he arrived at Broughton Island and prepared his specimens.
1775 Daniel Boone began cutting the Wilderness Road to Kentucky.
The Treaty of Sycamore Shoals opened up Kentucky for settlement.
Lord North extended the Restraining Act which forbade colonies from trading with any country other than Great Britain.
1775 January 11, Francis Salvador was elected to the South Carolina Provincial Congress and became the first Jew elected to public office in America.
March 25, Bartram arrived in Charleston.
March 26, the South Carolina Provincial Congress adopted a constitution and established an independent government with John Rutledge as president.
April 19, Battles of Lexington and Concord.
April 22, departed Charleston for the Cherokee Nation.
May, John Stuart left Charleston and sought safety in Savannah.
Early May, traveled from Augusta to Fort James.
May 10, the Second Continental Congress began in Philadelphia.
May 10, left Fort James and crossed the Savannah River near Calhoun Falls. He traveled through Abbeville County and lodged with Alexander Cameron for several days.
May 15, reached Seneca.
About May 19, departed Fort Prince George and crossed Oconee Mountain. He crossed the Chatooga River at Earl's Ford and followed Warwoman Creek. He passed through Clayton and then traveled north along the Little Tennessee River.
May 20, the Mecklenburg Resolves was adopted in Charlotte. This document was the FIrst declaration of independence from the authority of parliament. The Resolves suspended Royal ofFIcials from ofFIce in North Carolina, established a militia, and provided that all public income be received by the Resolves Committee.
May 22, arrived at Cowee and explored the Cowee Mountains.
May 24, departed Cowee and crossed the Nantahala Mountains at Burningtown Gap.
May 25, General William Howe, Sir Henry Clinton, General John Burgoyne, and British troops began the occupation of Boston.
May 27, returned to Cowee.
May 30, returned to Fort Prince George.
Early June, returned to Fort James and explored the Broad River.
June 15, George Washington was elected commander in chief of the Continental Army.
June 17, the Second Georgia Provincial Congress was held at Tondee's Tavern, Savannah.
June 22, Bartram left Fort James and crossed the river to Fort Charlotte where he joined a party of traders bound for Mobile. They traveled along the east side fo the Savannah River and lodged at the farm of Jean Louis de Mesnil du St. Pierre near New Bordeaux. They crossed the Savannah River north of Augusta and entered the Lower Creek Trading Path.
June 27, camped at Flat Rock.
July 1, camped at Rock Landing on the Oconee River.
July 3, crossed the Ocmulgee River.
July 5, crossed the Flint River at site of the future Creek Agency.
July 11, arrived at Yuch Town on the Chattahoochee River.
July 13, departed the Lower Creek towns and traveled along the south side of Uchee Creek, passed through Tuskegee, and crossed Uphapee Creek to Talasi.
July 16?, traveled from Talassee to Kolomi.
July 19?, traveled through the Alabama prairies (Montgomery County).
July 20?, crossed Pintlala Creek near the present-day town of Pintlala.
July 21?, passed through Fort Deposit and followed the trading path that coincides with the present-day Conecuh-Monroe county boundary.
July 26?, arrived at Major Farmar's plantation on the Tensaw River.
July 30 or 31, arrived in Mobile.
August 5, Bartram returned to the Farmar plantation where he spent several days exploring the Tensaw River and made a trip upriver to the lower part of the Tombigee River.
Mid-August, explored Baldwin County to the north of Stockton.
September 4 & 5, visited Pensacola and returned to Mobile on the 6th.
September 15, Royal Governor William Campbell dissolved the South Carolina Assembly and sought refuge aboard the Tamar.
September 7, Bartram became very ill yet sailed from Mobile on the 8th and reached the Pearl River in a day or two. He stayed at the home of the Frenchman for three days
Mid-September through the middle of October, Bartram recuperated from his illness at Mr. Rumsey's plantation.
About October 21, reached the Mississippi River at Manchac. He traveled to Baton Rouge in company of William Dunbar.
October 27, Bartram and Dunbar explored north of Baton Rouge and on the 28th they visited Pointe Coupee.
About November 10, departed Baton Rouge.
November 27, departed Mobile.
About December 4, arrived on the Tallapoosa River. He visited Fort Toulouse, Alabama Town, Muklasa, Tuckabatchee, Kolomi, and Atasi.
1776 Adam Smith wrote An Investigation into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.
January 2, Bartram departed the Upper Creek Towns.
January 14­18, stayed in Augusta.
Late January, arrived in Savannah.
February 11, Governor James Wright escaped Savannah to a British ship anchored at the mouth of the Savannah River. Archibald Bulloch became President of Georgia.
March 3, a þeet of seven British ships and 200 soldiers sailed up the Savannah River with the possible intention of retaking Savannah or simply stealing rice. Lachlan McIntosh ordered the militia to FIre upon the British and burn the merchant ships lying in the river. The British escaped with fourteen boatloads of rice and the incident became known as the Battle of the Rice Boats.
Spring and summer, Bartram explored the Georgia coast and traveled to the St. Mary's River where he had an encounter with the "intrepid Siminole." He joined the Georgia Militia during a militry campaign to dislodge loyalists from the St. Marys River.
April 12, North Carolina became the FIrst British colony to advocate independence when the provincial congress adopted the Halifax Resolves instructing the North Carolina delegates to the Continental Congress to urge independence and cooperation among the American colonies.
June 28, the South Carolina army repulse a British attack on Sullivan's Island.
July, William Bartram was involved in the defense of Georgia as a volunteer in the militia commanded by Lachlan McIntosh. During July McIntosh took the militia to the St. Marys River to head off an expected invasion from Florida. Bartram probably engaged in reconnaissance for McIntosh and was not engaged in combat.
July 4, the Declaration of Independence was adopted in Philadelphia.
July 31, Bartram sailed up the Altamaha River.
Late October, departed Darien for Savannah.
Early November, Bartram left Savannah.
Early December, arrived at Ashwood, on the Cape Fear River.
December 12 or 13, departed Ashwood.
December 26, arrived in Alexandria.
1777 About January 2, William Bartram arrived home in Philadelphia
September 22, John Bartram died.
September 26, The British began the occupation of Philadelphia.
1778 Voltaire died.
February 6, the Treaty of Commerce and Alliance brought France into the Revolution as an American ally.
June 18, The British army evacuated Philadelphia.
August 26, William Bartram signed the Affirmation of Allegiance and Fidelity to the government of Pennsylvania.
December 29, Savannah fell to Lt. Colonel Archibald Campbell.
1779 March 3, the Americans, led by General John Ashe, were defeated at the Battle of Briar Creek in Georgia. Three hundred Americans were lost and the patriot cause lost momentum.
March 14, Pennsylvania became the first state to abolish slavery.
June 21, Spain declared war against Great Britain.
July 14, Royal Governor James Wright returned to British occupied Savannah.
September 21, Governor Bernardo de Galvez of Louisiana captured Baton Rouge from the British.
October 9, French and American forces attacked but failed to take Savannah.
1780 March 14, Governor Galvez captured Mobile
May 12, General Benjamin Lincoln surrendered Charleston to Sir Henry Chnton.
May 25, Thomas Brown and the King's Carolina Rangers occupied Augusta without opposition.
June 1, General Cornwallis established headquarters in Camden, South Carolina.
June 18, the British captured Ninety Six, South Carolina.
August 16, American forces under General Horatio Gates were defeated at the Battle of Camden, South Carolina, by forces commanded by General Charles Cornwallis. Baron Johann de Kalb was fatally wounded.
October 7, British forces commanded by Major Patrick Ferguson were defeated at the Battle of King's Mountain, South Carolina. The American forces were commanded by Colonel William Campbell, Colonel Isaac Shelby, and Colonel Benjamin Cleveland.
December 26, John Fothergill died in London.
1781 Emmanuel Kant wrote Critique of Pure Reason.
January 17, General Daniel Morgan defeated British Lt. Colonel Banastre Tarleton at Cowpens, South Carolina.
March 1, the Articles of Confederation was ratiFIed.
March 15, at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse General Cornwallis won a costly victory against General Nathaneal Greene. Cornwallis withdrew to Wilmington, North Carolina, and left much of the South without British reinforcements.
May 10, Governor Galvez captured Pensacola.
October 19, General Charles Cornwallis surrendered his army at Yorktown, Virginia.
December 14, Charleston was returned to American control.
July I1, British forces and ofFIcials evacuated Savannah.
November 30, the preliminary meeting for the Treaty of Paris was held.
1782 William Bartram was offered the position of professor of botany at the University of Pennsylvania. Although there are no records that he declined the position, he never lectured.
1783 August 13, Charles Town, South Carolina, was incorporated as Charleston.
September 3, The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution. The new American nation included all land from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River. England retained Canada and Spain held Louisiana and East and West Florida.
1784 Ann Mendenhall Bartram died.
January 14, the Anglo-American Accord was ratiFIed by Congress. The accord recognized the United States as a legitimate nation with a western boundary at the Mississippi River.
1785 Humphrey Marshall, William Bartram's cousin, published Arbustum Americanum.
Edmund Cartwright patented the first power-driven loom.
January 27, the University of Georgia was chartered. The first degree was awarded in 1804.
March 19, the College of Charleston was chartered.
1786 William Bartram fell from a cypress tree while gathering seeds and broke his leg. The fracture caused him continuing difficulty and limited his ability to travel. He was visited by André and François Michaux in September.
September 21, André and François Michaux arrived in Charleston.
1787 May 25, the Constitutional Convention convened in Philadelphia.
June 10, George Washington visited the Bartram Garden.
July 14, The Bartam Garden received a visit from Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, George Mason, John Rutledge, and other members of the Constitutional Convention.
September 17, the Constitution was signed by the Constitutional Convention and presented to Congress.
George Washington was elected president of the United States.
1789 William Bartram wrote Observations on the Creek and Cherokee Indians. William Aiton published Hortus Kewensis in London and attributed twenty-one plant discoveries to William Bartram.
July 14, the Bastille was stormed by a Parisian mob and began the French Revolution.
December, the University of North Carolina was chartered in Chapel Hill. The FIrst degree was awarded in 1798.
1790 Samuel Slater built the first cotton spinning mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
April 17, Benjamin Franklin died in Philadelphia.
1791 William Bartram's Travels was published in Philadelphia by James and Johnson. The record of the copyright was dated August 26.
Slaves revolted in Santo Domingo causing Creole planters to flee to Louisiana, Charleston, and Savannah.
Summer, President George Washington traveled through the Southern states.
October 1, the French National Legislative Assembly held its FIrst meeting.
December 5, Mozart died.
1792 Eli Witney built the first cotton gin at Mulberry Grove Plantation north of Savannah.
September 21, the French National Assembly abolished the Monarchy.
September 22, the French Republic was proclaimed.
1793 January 21, Louis XVI was executed.
February 12, the Fugitive Slave Act became law.
June 2, Robbespiere began the Reign of Terror during the formation of the French Republic.
1794 The Whiskey Rebellion erupted in western Pennsylvania; an armed protest against tax on distilled spirits. George Washington lead an army to Bedford and arrested leaders of the revolt. Washington's action established the authority of the federal government over state sovereignty and strenghtened the legitimacy of the infant government in the eyes of European powers.This was the only time a sitting president of the United States commanded an army in the FIeld.
1795 October 26, Napoleon Bonaparte became commander of the French Army.
1796 June 1, Tennessee was admitted to the Union.
1797 John Adams became the second president of the United States.
1800 The Library of Congress was established.
1801 Tomas Jefferson became the third president of the United States.
Ireland became an official part of the United Kingdom.
1800 October 1, the Treaty of San Ildefonso returned Louisiana to France.
1802 William Bartram befriended Alexander Wilson.
1803 Benjamin Smith Barton published Elements of Botany which included illustrations by William Bartram.
April 30, the Louisiana Purchase was concluded.
1804­06 The Corps of Discovery, lead by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, explored the American West.
William Bartram published "Anecdotes of an American Crow" and "Some Account of the Late Mr. John Bartram, of Pennsylvania" in the Philadelphia Medical and Physical Journal.
1806 Noah Webster published A Compendius Dictionary of the English Language.
February, William Bartram declined President Thomas Jefferson's offer to serve as naturalist on the Red River expedition.
1808 Alexander Wilson published the FIrst volume of American Ornithology.
1809 James Madison became the fourth president of the United States.
1810 October 27, The United States annexed the West Florida Republic.
William Bartram began mentoring Thomas Say, his nephew, who published America's first book of entomology.
1812 John Bartram, Jr. died. The Bartram Garden was left to his daughter Ann and her husband Robert Carr.
The Academy of Natural Sciences was founded in Philadelphia and William Bartram was elected to membership.
April 30, Louisiana was admitted to the Union.
May 14, Mississippi Territory was organized.
1813­14 First Creek War.
1813 April 15, the United States took possession of Mobile and all of West Florida lying west of the Perdido River
August 30, Red Stick Creeks attacked Fort Mims and killed several hundred whites and mestizo Creeks.
1814 The FIrst cotton spinning and weaving mill in the United States was built in Waltham, Massachusetts.
August 9, the Treaty of Fort Jackson took over half of the Creek Nation's land.
August 24­25, a British army invaded Washington D.C. and burned the White House and capitol.
1815 January, Congress authorized $23,950 to purchase Thomas Jefferson's personal library of 6,487 books to replenish the Library of Congress burned by the British .
1817 James Monroe became the FIfth president of the United States.
March 3, Alabama Territory was created.
December 10, Mississippi was admitted to the Union.
1818 The First Seminole War.
1819 December 14, Alabama was admitted to the Union.
1820 King George III died.
1821 Sequoyah completed his Cherokee alphabet. Within six months twenty five percent of the Cherokee population learned to read.
February 22, the Adams-Onis Treaty completed the transfer of East Florida to the United States.
1822 March 30, Florida Territory was created.
May, the Denmark Vesey slave revolt was discovered in Charleston.
1823 July 22, William Bartram died at his home outside Philadelphia. He was buried the next day in an unmarked grave.
return to top of page